Literature Review Matrix

Light Electric Vehicles (LEV)












MethodologyAnalysis &



ConclusionsImplications for


Future research



For practice

Abdalkarim Awad, I.E-MobilityWhat is the e-mobility charging impact on power grid?Various charging rates with various EV types determine the range of the EV.The more EVs use the charging stations depending on the type, the more load on the power grid.A Virtual Power Plant (VPP) control system is needed to adjust the grids power levels to meet the demand of the EV.Evaluate the load on the power grid from EV usage and adjust the load demands accordingly.Implications to test the power grid load with EVs and adjusting the load with VPP control system.
Aggeler, D., Canales, F., Coccia, A., Butcher, N., & Apeldoorn, O.





Ultra-fast DC-charge infrastructures for EV-mobility and future smart grids. In Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT Europe).E-mobility charging plan where is it needed?High frequency charging and low frequency charging electrical characteristics for EV charging stations.Interest in high frequency charging in the range of 125 kW to 300 kW in relation to the grid.Integration of high frequency with the smart grid is needed with 300 kW.Placement of high frequency station on the smart grid will affect the amount of usage and power needed.Implications to test the placement of high frequency station on the smart grid where EVs travel the most.
Ballentin, R., Hartmann, D., Kopp, D., Loewel, T., Sund,M., Templ, W.




E-Mobility in the Context of Electric Energy Disstribution Grids.What is the e-mobility charging impact on power grid?Charging algorithm where the location of charging station, capacity of battery charge, timestamp, and range calculated of the EV system is used to determine and predict energy consumption.Analysis of algorithm indicates a future increase of EV vehicles, future adjustments to the power grid in areas of charging stations and EV traffic is needed.In the next 10 years, the number of EVs deployed will influence future energy distribution grids and by charging scenarios.Intelligent charging stations and intelligent grid management systems that uses Artificial Intelligence.Implications to test the power grid load with EVs while adjusting the load with VPP control system according to mapped charging station usage.
Bessler, S., Grønbæk, J., Herry, M., Schuster, A., & Tomschy, R.



Supporting E-mobility Users and Utilities towards an Optimized Charging Service. In European Electric Vehicle CongressWhat is average length of stay for car-drivers in minutes at a destination during what time of the day and how to apply this to EVs?Chart of average stay duration during the day and use cases of mobility behavior.EV drivers want to find and reserve charging point during the day within walking distance from their neighborhood. These parameters are based on arrival time, state of charge, and estimated stay.A decentralized charging architecture has substantial advantages compared to existing solutions. A charging point meter is controlled from a central server delivering power by a smart interface.A charging point metering system with interworking and dependent charging stations. A smart interface and application for consumer and a power grid flow model.Implications to test the power grid load with EVs and adjusting the load with VPP control system along with smart interface.
Bessler, S., & Grønbæk, J.





Routing EV users towards an optimal charging planWhat is the e-mobility charging impact on power grid and on the user?Heuristic algorithmSometimes the upper limit of power available at charging stations is exceeded by usage resulting in poor charging performance.Two aspects of e-mobility problem of finding public charging station and energy balancing problem affects the power grid and user. A distributed architecture where charging stations are placed near public city transportation using a smart online mobile routing service.Currently, research is being done to evaluate local search heuristics to scheduling problem.Systems components such as routing server, charging station controllers, and low voltage grid flow calculation modules can be integrated along with mobile app.
Schiavo, L., Delfanti, M., Fumagalli, E.




Regulatory developments for smart grids, smart metering and e-mobility in ItalyWhat is the e-mobility regulatory impact on power grid and on the users in Italy?Case study of how energy regulation of smart grids, small, and large distributors of energy affects EVs.The use of EVs changed regulations such as recharging electric cars directly in private garages at home had to be removed. Since April 2011 this regulation has been changed where a house is allowed to have dual power supplies.The use of EVs interconnected with the power grid posed some regulatory issues such as what role does charging stations play in the grid and who regulates the power to the charging stations?Implications for future research of a mini smart grid system specially for charging stations.Implications to test the power grid load with EVs and adjusting the load with VPP control system along with smart grid system for EVs.
Mültin, M., & Schmeck, H.




E-mobility PKI encryption key management charging stations scenariosWhat does ISO/IEC 15118 standard and PKI have to do with e-mobility?ISO/IEC 15118 and PKI secure encryption key to communicate between EV and charging station EVSE.The analysis and result is this standard ISO/IEC 15118 provides a “plug-and-charge” mechanism for authentication, authorization, billing, and flexible load control between EV and EVSE.Since this e-roaming system uses PKI as the foundation of the plug-and-charge system, the maintenance of this system such as root servers and distribution of certificates needs to be maintained properly for people who purchase EV vehicles to charge at EVSE stations.Future research is how well does this system hold internationally and how to transfer certificates to a new owner who purchases a used EV. In addition, security of system needs to be tested.Implications to test the e-roaming ISO/IEC EV system with charging stations integrated with a VPP control system.