Command and control (C2) to C5i satellite reconnaissance starts with information and the authority to command assets. 


Communications in cyber includes the networking (analog, digital signals) between computers, ground stations, mobile devices, and satellites.


Computers play a significant role in the network topology for cyber operations and security whether in space or on land.


Collaboration and intelligence is the gathering of information from sources such as space and correlating that to ground.


Cyber security is an important aspect of C5i network. Our Alien Threat Intelligence (ATI) gathers indicators, OSINT, and cyber threat intelligence (CTI).


NASA has engaged with commercial small-satellite companies to purchase data products for scientific evaluation contracts.


The April 25, 2015, the Gorkha earthquake of a magnitude 7.8 in Nepal triggered devastating landslides. In the Langtang Valley, ice, snow and debris avalanches, rockfalls and landslides occurred as well as other areas of the Nepal Himalaya.

Landsat 8 satellite imagery shows that a landslide damming a river and resulting in the formation of a lake in the Manaslu trekking region of Nepal. 

The landslide location is: 28.559N, 84.793E, at about 8,200 feet (2,500 meters) elevation.

These are the first post-earthquake optical imagery taken by satellites. However, clouds limited the view and more recent imagery shows clear and partly-cloudy skies. This improved imagery was obtained by satellites operated by the United States, India and Digital Globe.

Image Credit: NASA/USGS/DigitalGlobe
Image Credit: NASA/USGS/DigitalGlobe


Through analysis of pre- and post-event imagery from six weeks before and five days after the earthquake these images were taken. Images were acquired by the United States Geological Survey/NASA Landsat 8 satellite, the earthquake-induced landslide was detected. 

It was also found that a new lake is forming upstream from the dam where the slide has blocked stream flow.

A mapping technique that separates surface water from rock and vegetation, to identify the landslide where an impoundment lake is forming. Later confirmed, a landslide is shown in the image as bright red and water appearing as almost white.

Although, this landslide did not harm any villages; however, the new lake posses a threat. Potential damage to villages upstream of Ghapsya (3.1 miles, or 5 kilometers) and Ghap (3.7 miles, or 6 kilometers), and just 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) are terraced agricultural fields.


If the lake continues to grow, it could become increasingly unstable, adding pressure to the rock and material resulting in forming an earthen dam and potentially creating a landslide. A commercial detailed image from WorldView satellite (operated by Digital Globe) shows cast shadows.

The water may eventually drain slowly, but could also result in an outburst flood. 

In response to the initial findings and assessment upon Landsat imagery, Indian and commercial satellites have acquired additional high-resolution images.  Additional high-resolution images confirms the existence of the lake, which was first identified using Landsat 8. 

This updated image clearly shows that the lake has breached the landslide, slowly enough to cause no harm. Recommended to monitor the situation where the leak is not fast enough to drain the lake.  Resources needed are additional satellite-based reconnaissance to better measure and assess the evolving risk due to the lake.

Natural Disasters Worldwide *
Claimed Human Lives *
Average Lives Per Year *
Affected People Per Year *
* Source: PreventionWeb
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