USE CASE SCENARIO
NASA has engaged with commercial small-satellite companies to purchase data products for scientific evaluation contracts.
INSPIRE, EXCITE, PERFORM
Command and control (C2) to C5i satellite reconnaissance starts with information and the authority to command assets.
Communications in cyber includes the networking (analog, digital signals) between computers, ground stations, mobile devices, and satellites.
Computers play a significant role in the network topology for cyber operations and security whether in space or on land.
Collaboration and intelligence is the gathering of information from sources such as space and correlating that to ground.
Cyber security is an important aspect of C5i network.
The April 25, 2015, magnitude 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal triggered devastating landslides in Langtang Valley. Ice, snow and debris avalanches, rockfalls and landslides also occurred widely in other areas of the Nepal Himalaya.
Landsat 8 satellite imagery shows that a landslide is also damming a river and resulting in the formation of a lake in the Manaslu trekking region of Nepal.
The landslide location is: 28.559N, 84.793E, at about 8,200 feet (2,500 meters) elevation.
The first post-earthquake optical imagery was limited by clouds, but recent clear and partly-cloudy skies over the area have allowed for improved imagery obtained by satellites operated by the United States, India and Digital Globe.
Through analysis of pre- and post-event imagery from March 12, 2015 and April 30, 2015 (six weeks before and five days after the earthquake) acquired by the United States Geological Survey/NASA Landsat 8 satellite, the earthquake-induced landslide was detected.
It was also found that a new lake is forming upstream from the dam where the slide has blocked stream flow.
A mapping technique that separates surface water from rock and vegetation, to identify the landslide and confirm that an impoundment lake is forming. The landslide is bright red and water appearing as almost white.
This landslide did not harm any villages; however, the new lake is upstream of the villages of Ghapsya (3.1 miles, or 5 kilometers) upstream and Ghap (3.7 miles, or 6 kilometers), and just 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) from terraced agricultural fields.
If the lake continues to grow, it could become increasingly unstable, adding pressure to the rock and material forming the earthen dam created by the landslide. A commercial WorldView satellite (operated by Digital Globe) obtained a detailed image free of cast shadows on May 3, 2015.
The water may eventually drain slowly, but could also result in an outburst flood.
In response to the initial findings based on the Landsat imagery, Indian and commercial satellites have acquired additional high-resolution images that confirm the existence of the lake, which was first identified using Landsat 8.
The image shows that the lake very clearly has breached the landslide, probably slowly enough to cause no harm but hopefully fast enough to drain the lake. Additional satellite-based reconnaissance and measurements are necessary to better assess the evolving risk due to the lake.